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  • Ecofeminism: Topic Page
    A movement or theory that applies feminist principles and ideas to ecological issues. MORE
  • Environmentalism: Topic Page
    Movement to protect the quality and continuity of life through conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and control of land use. MORE
  • Green Party: Topic Page
    Any of the political parties established in various countries to oppose the destructive environmental effects of many modern technologies and the economic systems and institutions that drive them. MORE
  • Kyoto Protocol: Topic Page

    International protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that was agreed at Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997. MORE
  • Recycling: Topic Page
    The process of recovering and reusing waste products—from household use, manufacturing, agriculture, and business—and thereby reducing their burden on the environment. MORE
  • Stewardship
    From International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics
    Often associated with religious and agricultural views and practices, stewardship covers a diverse range of related positions in regard to how humans ought to value and treat the environment.
  • Sustainable Development
    From Dictionary of Environmental Science and Technology
    Sustainable development: formally it is ‘development which meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. This should make us think about how we currently use our natural resources at the future expense of our children.
  • Urban Sustainability
    From Encyclopedia of Geography
    As a concept and a field of study, urban sustainability emerged out of the sustainable development movement that took off in 1987 with the publication of the Brundtland report, Our Common Future.

US Legislation

  • Clean Air Act
    From International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics
    The first law to bear the name ‘Clean Air Act’ was passed by the US Congress in 1963; there were additional laws passed in 1965 and 1967.
  • Clean Water Act
    From International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics
    In 1972, the US Congress rewrote water pollution law by passing the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments, which became known as the ‘Clean Water Act’ (CWA).
  • Endangered Species Act
    From Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices
    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 is comprehensive federal legislation designed to protect all species in the United States designated as endangered by protecting habitats critical to their survival.
  • Environmental Protection Agency: Topic Page
    Agency established to safeguard the environment. Congress officially brought the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) into existence in 1970, but its roots go back as far as 1962.
  • National Environmental Policy Act
    From International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics
    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 became a ‘cornerstone’ of modern environmental law in the USA.


  • Edward Abbey (1927 - 1989)
    From International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics
    Edward Abbey, a distinguished writer of books and articles on nature and the environment, is unique as one who refused to consider himself an environmentalist, even though virtually all of his published work shows a love of wild places. MORE
  • Ansel Adams (1902 - 1984): Topic Page
    American photographer, b. San Francisco. He began taking photographs in the High Sierra and Yosemite Valley, with which his name is permanently associated, becoming professional in 1930. MORE
  • Sir David Attenborough (1926 - ):Topic Page
    Naturalist and broadcaster, born in London, UK, the brother of Richard Attenborough. MORE
  • David Bellamy (1933 - ): Topic Page
    British botanist, writer, and broadcaster. MORE
  • Wendell Berry (1934 - )
    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present
    Wendell Berry has carefully tended a farm in north-central Kentucky that his family has tilled since 1803, while simultaneously conducting a formidable literary and academic career.
  • David Brower (1912 - 2000)

    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present
    David Brower, proclaimed “archdruid” of conservation by his biographer, John McPhee, was perhaps the most famous environmentalist of the twentieth-century United States.
  • Rachel Carson (1907-1964): Topic Page
    American environmentalist and writer whose best-known work, Silent Spring (1962), condemns the use of pesticides hazardous to wildlife. MORE
  • René Dubos (1901 - 1982)
    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present
    Dubos was disturbed by wanton environmental destruction and in the early 1960s became an outspoken advocate for the nascent environmental movement of that time.
  • Al Gore (1948- ): Topic Page
    US Democratic politician and environmentalist, vice-president 1993-2001. MORE
  • James Hansen (1941 - )
    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present
    The director of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York since 1981, and an adjunct professor at Columbia University’s Earth Institute since 1985, James Hansen is a climatologist known as the Paul Revere of global warming.


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  • Aldo Leopold (1887-1948): Topic Page
    US conservationist and ecologist. MORE
  • James Lovelock (1919 - )
    From Encyclopedia of Global Environmental Change
    James Lovelock is an inventor and independent scientist. In the 1950s Lovelock carried out pioneering work on the detection of trace gases.
  • Amory Lovins (1947 - )
    From Contemporary World Issues: Renewable and Alternative Energy Resources: A Reference Handbook
    Amory Lovins, a well-known American environmentalist and renewable energy advocate, has been called by Newsweek one of the most influential energy thinkers in the Western world.
  • George Perkins Marsh (1801 - 1882)
    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present
    Marsh was an avid student of the land, especially how human activity altered it.
  • Chico Mendes (1944 - 1988)
    From International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics
    The short life of Francisco ‘Chico’ Alves Mendes Filho was devoted to leading the Brazilian rubber tappers’ fight to defend the Amazon Forest against exploitation by powerful and wealthy land speculators and ranchers.
  • John Muir (1838-1914): Topic Page
    Explorer, naturalist, and conservationist, born in Dunbar, East Lothian, E Scotland, UK. MORE
  • Gaylord Nelson (1916 - 2005)
    From Encyclopedia of the U.S. Government and the Environment: History, Policy, and Politics
    Gaylord Nelson, the founder of Earth Day, was a Democratic governor and a three-term senator from Wisconsin before becoming counselor to the Wilderness Society, where he worked until his death at age 89 in 2005.
  • E. F. Schumacher (1911 - 1977)
    From Encyclopedia of Environment and Society
    E. F. Schumacher is best known for his book Small is Beautiful, which argued for social and environmental sustainability as a radical critique of mass industrialization, the culture of consumerism, and the logic of globalization.
  • Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862): Topic Page
    US naturalist and author; his experiment in living in solitude recorded in Walden (1854), his thoughts on the individual in society in Civil Disobedience (1849). MORE
  • Paul Watson (1950 - )
    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present
    Paul Watson is best known for his direct actions at sea in the defense of seals, dolphins, whales, and other marine wildlife. From the late 1960s, Watson actively campaigned to prevent nuclear testing, to disrupt Canadian seal hunts, and to damage or sink vessels engaged in illegal whaling activities.
  • Jacques Yves-Cousteau (1910 - 1997)
    From Scientific Exploration and Expeditions: From the Age of Discovery to the Twenty-First Century
    French oceanographer Jacques Cousteau gained fame for his many books and documentaries dedicated to his undersea explorations, including those made from his base ship, the Calypso. But Cousteau did more than produce popular works. He developed a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, showed that human beings could live underwater for extended periods of time, and exposed the threat of pollution to the oceans.