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19th Century Psychologists

  • Alexander Bain (1818 - 1903): Topic Page
    Empirical philosopher and psychologist, born in Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, NE Scotland, UK. He became professor of logic at Aberdeen University (1860–81), and founded the journal Mind in 1876.
  • Jean Charcot (1825 - 1893): Topic Page
    French neurologist known for his research into diseases of the nervous system. Sigmund Freud was one of his pupils.
  • Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850 - 1909): Topic Page
    German experimental psychologist who undertook the first systematic and large-scale studies of memory and devised tests using nonsense syllables.
  • Havelock Henry Ellis (1859 - 1939): Topic Page
    Havelock Ellis, while writing extensively on other subjects also, was a major pioneer in the endeavour to dispel the rigidity and secrecy regarding sexual matters which held sway in Western Europe, not least in Britain, during the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
  • Gustav Fechner (1801 - 1887): Topic Page
    Fechner was one of a small number of German scientists whose work in the nineteenth century laid the foundation for modern experimental psychology.
  • William James (1842 - 1910): Topic Page
    William James has an interesting (and possibly confusing) family tree, being the son of Henry James, the religious philosopher, and brother of another Henry James, the novelist. He himself was a philosopher and psychologist who taught at Harvard.
  • Pierre Janet (1859 - 1947): Topic Page
    Psychologist and neurologist, born in Paris, France. He studied under Jean Martin Charcot, lectured in philosophy, and became the director of the psychological laboratory at La Salpêtrière hospital in Paris (1899), and professor of psychology at the Sorbonne.
  • Christine Ladd-Franklin (1847 - 1930): Topic Page
    Psychologist and logician, born in Windsor, Connecticut, USA. She studied mathematics at Johns Hopkins University, where she married faculty member Fabian Franklin (1882).
  • Ernst Weber (1795 - 1878): Topic Page
    German physiologist and psychologist who studied sensory response and is considered a founder of experimental psychology.
  • Edward Titchener (1867 - 1927): Topic Page
    Edward Bradford Titchener, described as the dean of experimental psychology in America during his lifetime, was influential in bringing the ‘new psychology’, the experimental psychology of Wilhelm Wundt and others, to the United States.

Psychoanalysis

  • Psychoanalysis: Topic Page
    Name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders.
  • Alfred Adler (1870-1937): Topic Page
    Pioneer psychiatrist, born in Vienna, Austria. He trained in Vienna, and first practised as an ophthalmologist, but later turned to mental disease and became a prominent member of the psychoanalytical group which formed around Sigmund Freud in 1900.
  • Gabriel Alexander (1891 - 1964): Topic Page
    Alexander's contributions lie in the areas of psychoanalytic research, psychotherapy and psychosomatics. He was the most prominent representative of the neo-Freudian Chicago School of psychoanalysis.
  • Erik Erikson (1902-1994): Topic Page
    German-born US psychoanalytic theorist who contributed to the understanding of human mental development.
  • Anna Freud (1895-1982): Topic Page
    Wife of famed Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.
  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): Topic Page
    Sigmund Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis and proved to be the most influential writer about the unconscious mind in the twentieth century. In 1900, he published The Interpretation of Dreams, which became a seminal work in the history of psychoanalysis. Not only did it include his ideas about the unconscious and the conscious, it also revealed Freud’s tendency to view many psychological conflicts as rooted in sexuality.
  • Erich Fromm (1900 - 1980): Topic Page
    First educated by Jewish teachers and Talmudists, Fromm studied sociology with Alfred Weber at Heidelberg. He was trained in psychoanalysis and became a psychoanalyst at the end of the twenties.
  • Karen Horney (1885 - 1952): Topic Page
    German-born US psychoanalyst best known for her concentration on the importance of the environment in the development of character.
  • Melanie Klein (1882-1960): Topic Page
    Melanie Klein was one of the most influential and controversial psychoanalysts in Britain, one of the current analytic schools being named after her. She trained originally as a nursery-school teacher.
  • Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957): Topic Page
    Psychiatrist and writer. He studied medicine in Vienna and, becoming interested in Freud’s theories of sexuality, became associated with Freud’s Psychoanalytic Polyclinic in Vienna.
  


20th Century Psychologists

  • Gordon Allport (1897 - 1967): Topic Page
    Gordon Allport was the youngest of four brothers. His father was a country physician, and the family moved to Ohio shortly after Gordon's birth.
  • Anne Anastasi (1908 - 2001): Topic Page
    Psychologist, born in New York City, New York, USA. She taught at Barnard College (1930–9), Queens College (1939–46), and Fordham University (1946–79). In 1933 she married psychologist John Porter Foley Jr, a fellow graduate of Columbia University.
  • Rudolf Arnheim (1904 - 2007): Topic Page
    When he completed his PhD (an experimental investigation of visual perception) Arnheim worked for five years (1928-33) as assistant editor of a cultural affairs magazine published in Berlin.
  • Albert Bandura (1925 - ): Topic Page
    Albert Bandura grew up in Mundare, Northern Alberta, Canada. He spent his elementary and high-school years in the village's one and only school. At the University of Iowa he studied with Kenneth Spence (an associate of Clark Hull) and earned a doctorate in clinical psychology.
  • Raymond Cattell (1905 - 1998): Topic Page
    Psychologist, born in Staffordshire, C England, UK. He studied at London University, taught at Harvard, Clarke, and Duke universities before World War 2, and after the war became director of the Laboratory of Personality Assessment at Illinois University.
  • Edouard Claparede (1873 - 1940): Topic Page
    Edouard Claparède was born and spent most of his life in Geneva. After studying science and medicine he concentrated on psychology, studying, and later collaborating, with Theodore Fluornoy, to whom he was closely related.
  • Kenneth Clark (1914 - 2005): Topic Page
    Panamanian-born American psychologist and author who demonstrated the psychological effects of racial segregation and ghetto life.
  • Albert Ellis (1913 - 2007): Topic Page
    Psychologist and writer, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. He studied at Columbia University (1947 PhD), taught at Rutgers University (1948–9), and practised clinical psychology from 1950.
  • Hans Eysenck (1916 - 1997): Topic Page
    Psychologist, born in Berlin, Germany. He studied in France and at London University, and was professor of psychology at London University (1955–83). Much of his work was psychometric research into the normal variations of human personality and intelligence.
  • Leon Festinger (1919 - 1989): Topic Page
    What have each of the following got in common: decision making, communication, level of aspiration, food deprivation, persuasion, deindividuation in groups, pursuit eye movement and the technology of prehistoric hunting tools? The answer is Leon Festinger.
  • Fred Fiedler (1922 - ): Topic Page
    Although his initial training at the University of Chicago was in clinical psychology, Fiedler has always been interested in industrial and organizational psychology.
  • James Gibson (1904 - 1979): Topic Page
    Psychologist, born in McConnelsville, Ohio, USA. He studied at Princeton and Edinburgh universities, and taught psychology at Smith College (1928–49) and at Cornell (1949–72).
  • Harry Harlow (1905 - 1981): Topic Page
    Harlow's contributions to psychology comprise a series of empirical findings in three main areas: the learning of problem solving, curiosity and manipulation, and the development of affectional systems.
  • Clark Hull (1884 - 1952): Topic Page
    Psychologist, born in Akron, New York, USA. He studied at Michigan and Wisconsin universities, then taught at Wisconsin and (from 1929) in the Institute of Human Relations at Yale, where he conducted experimental research into behaviour and learning processes.
  • Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969): Topic Page
    German psychiatrist, philosopher, and theologian. A founder of modern existentialism, he was concerned with human reactions to extreme situations.
  • Carl Jung (1875 - 1961): Topic Page
    Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist; he offered an alternative to Freudian psychoanalysis, developing concepts such as the collective unconscious, with its archetypes, the complex, and personality types.
  • Abraham Maslow (1908 - 1970): Topic Page
    US psychologist. A professor at Brooklyn College (1937-51) and Brandeis University (1951-61), he is regarded as the founder of humanistic psychology.
  • David McClelland (1917 - 1998): Topic Page
    David McClelland is the founder and chairman of the Board of MoBer and Co. and Professor of Psychology at Harvard University. His forty years of research have resulted in an internationally recognized theory of human motivation.
  • Carl Rogers (1902 - 1987): Topic Page
    American psychologist. A founder of humanistic psychology, he developed client-centered therapy, in which the client directs the focus and pace of each session.
  • Hermann Rorschach (1884 - 1922): Topic Page
    Rorschach's stature has been obscured by the development and partial eclipse of the projective test that bears his name. The only firm links between the two are the reduced set of ten inkblots, accepted by the publisher from the fifteen he had carefully selected, and his theoretic stance.
  


 

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Developmental & Educational Psychologists

  • James Mark Baldwin (1861 - 1934): Topic Page
    Baldwin represents the rather interesting case of a researcher whose early career neatly tracked the empirical path that American psychology took during the years bridging the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but who then seemed to revert to the more philosophical interests and approaches of an earlier time.
  • Alfred Binet (1857 - 1911): Topic Page
    Psychologist, the founder of intelligence tests, born in Nice, SE France. Director of physiological psychology.
  • John Bowlby (1907 - 1990
    From Cambridge Encyclopedia of Child Development
    The son of a London surgeon, the British psychiatrist John Bowlby studied Medicine and Psychology at Cambridge University. After service as an army psychiatrist, he took up an appointment at the Tavistock Clinic in 1946, where he remained for the rest of his working life.
  • Jerome Bruner (1915 - ): Topic Page
    Jerome Bruner's contributions can be anchored in three concepts which are concerned with how we learn to mean and to understand others’ meanings. These are intentionality, thinking and culture.
  • Cyril Burt (1883 - 1971): Topic Page
    Following contact with Francis Galton early in his life, Cyril Burt's first academic appointment was to Charles Sherrington's Department of Physiology in the University of Liverpool. In 1913 he moved to London as psychologist to the London County Council: the first educational psychologist appointment in Britain.
  • Arnold Gesell (1880 - 1961): Topic Page
    Psychologist, born in Alma, Wisconsin, USA, the brother of Gerhard Gesell. He studied at Clark and Yale universities, became Director of the Clinic of Child Development at Yale in 1911, and also taught at Yale School of Medicine (1915–48).
  • Donald Hebb (1904 - 1985): Topic Page
    Donald Hebb committed himself to psychology late, at the age of 30. After graduating from Dalhousie University without special distinction, except in maths and physics, he became a high school teacher in his home village.
  • Arthur Jensen (1923 - ): Topic Page
    After obtaining his PhD from Columbia, the first decade of Arthur Jensen's life was spent applying Hullian theory to verbal learning. When this theory entered its death throes, Jensen moved fields to the psychology of individual differences, where he concentrated on the field of general intelligence and scholastic performance.
  • Lawrence Kohlberg (1927 - 1987): Topic Page
    Lawrence Kohlberg was the son of a wealthy businessman. He went to prestigious schools but instead of continuing on the path of privilege he joined the Merchant Marines after leaving high school.
  • Jean Piaget (1896 - 1980): Topic Page
    Swiss psychologist, noted for his work on the development of the cognitive functions in children.
  • Lev Vygotsky (1896 - 1934): Topic Page
    Lev Semeonovich Vygotsky grew up in Gomel, near Belarus's borders with Russia and with the Ukraine. His early life and education were those of a well-to-do Jewish family of the time.