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Last Updated: Nov 6, 2017 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

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Schools of Psychology

  • Behaviorism
    From World of Sociology
    Behaviorism, an approach to psychological study based philosophically on logical-positivism that denies the relevance of consciousness in understanding behavior, explains human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli.
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
    From Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Psychology
    CBT is an extremely successful and popular method of psychotherapy, loosely based on cognitive principles.
  • Functionalism
    From The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy
    The view that mental states are defined by their causes and effects. As a metaphysical thesis about the nature of mental states, functionalism holds that what makes an inner state mental is not an intrinsic property of the state, but rather its relations to sensory stimulation (input), to other inner states, and to behavior (output).
  • Gestalt: Topic Page
    School of psychology that interprets phenomena as organized wholes rather than as aggregates of distinct parts, maintaining that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
  • Moral Psychology
    From The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy
    The subfield of psychology that traces the development over time of moral reasoning and opinions in the lives of individuals.
  • Organizational Psychology
    From The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology
    A branch of applied psychology covering organizational, military, economic and personnel psychology and including such areas as tests and measurements, the study of organizations and organizational behaviour, personnel practices, human engineering, human factors, the effects of work, fatigue, pay, consumer surveys and market research.
  • Psychoanalysis: Topic Page
    Name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders.
  • Structuralism
    From The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science
    As a school or system of psychology, structuralism had its antecedents in British philosophy of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Suggested Library Databases

Organizations & Institutions

  • American Psychological Association
    From Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults
    The American Psychological Association (APA) is the nation’s major psychology organization. The APA works to advance psychology as a science and a profession, and to promote human welfare.
  • Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital
    From Encyclopedia of Special Education: A Reference for the Education of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults
    The history of psychiatric care at Bellevue Hospital Center and the history of psychiatric care in the United States are closely interwoven.
  • Halfway Houses
    From The Concise Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology and Behavioral Science
    Halfway houses are locales where all activities and interactions may be viewed as having potentially healing, rehabilitative, and supportive properties and where all members may consciously or unconsciously contribute to therapy.
  • Harvard University: Topic Page
    Mainly at Cambridge, Mass., including Harvard College, the oldest American college.

  • Hospital: Topic Page
    An institution in which certain kinds of illness are investigated and treated.
  • Oxford University
    From The Columbia Encyclopedia
    At Oxford, England, one of the oldest English-language universities in the world.
  • Total institution
    From World of Sociology
    Total institutions are residential establishments designed to break down prior socialization and instill a new set of norms, values, and beliefs.
  • University: Topic Page
    Institution of higher learning for those who have completed primary and secondary education.


  • Culture: Topic Page
    In anthropology, the integrated system of socially acquired values, beliefs, and rules of conduct which delimit the range of accepted behaviors in any given society.
  • Education: Topic Page
    Process, beginning at birth, of developing intellectual capacity, skills, and social awareness, especially by instruction.
  • Environment: Topic Page
    In ecology, the sum of conditions affecting a particular organism, including physical surroundings, climate, and influences of other living organisms. Areas affected by environmental issues include the biosphere and habitat.
  • Family Roles
    From World of Sociology
    Family roles are positions within the family, such as parent, wife/husband, or son/daughter, that describe relations between family members and include expectations for proper behavior.
  • Heredity: Topic Page
    Transmission from generation to generation through the process of reproduction in plants and animals of factors which cause the offspring to resemble their parents.
  • Personality: Topic Page
    In psychology, the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations.
  • Religion: Topic Page
    A system of thought, feeling, and action that is shared by a group and that gives the members an object of devotion; a code of behavior by which individuals may judge the personal and social consequences of their actions; and a frame of reference by which individuals may relate to their group and their universe.
  • Standard of living: Topic Page
    Level of consumption that an individual, group, or nation has achieved. The evaluation of a standard of living is relative, depending upon the judgment of the observer as to what constitutes a high or a low scale.

Related Fields

  • Anatomy: Topic Page
    Branch of biology concerned with the study of body structure of various organisms, including humans.
  • Genetics: Topic Page
    Branch of biology concerned with the study of heredity and variation - inheritance. It aims to explain how characteristics of living organisms are passed on from one generation to the next.
  • Linguistics: Topic Page
    Scientific study of language, covering the structure (morphology and syntax; see grammar), sounds (phonology), and meaning (semantics), as well as the history of the relations of languages to each other and the cultural place of language in human behavior.
  • Medicine: Topic Page
    The science and art of treating and preventing disease.
  • Pharmacology: Topic Page
    A branch of medical science which studies the actions, uses, and undesirable side-effects of drugs. The first descriptions of remedies from plant sources were made by the ancient Greeks and Chinese.
  • Philosophy: Topic Page
    Study of the ultimate reality, causes, and principles underlying being and thinking.
  • Psychopharmacology: Topic Page
    In its broadest sense, the study of all pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. The term is usually applied more specifically to the study and synthesis of drugs used in the control of psychiatric illnesses, namely the antipsychotic, antianxiety, antidepressant, and antimanic medications.
  • Sociology: Topic Page
    Scientific study of human social behavior. As the study of humans in their collective aspect, sociology is concerned with all group activities—economic, social, political, and religious.